Ferramentas Pessoais
Acessar

The Senate in the Republic period

 

With the advent of the Republic, the legislative activity became more intense, with the Senate assuming a leading role that led, for example, to the approval of the Brazilian Civil Code. In the beginning of the Republic, notably, the Senators Rui Barbosa, Campos Sales, Prudente de Morais, Pinheiro Machado and Epitácio Pessoa stood out.
A significant setback for the Federal Senate occurred due to the Revolution of 1930, when the movement led by Getúlio Vargas brought an institutional rupture by dissolving the National Congress, on November 11th, 1930.  The 1934 Constitution restored the Legislative Branch, comprised of Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate; and at the same time decreed that the next election of the President of the Republic would be indirect. On July 17th, 1934, Getúlio Vargas was elected. Even with the restoration of the National Congress, comprised of two legislative houses, the Federal Senate did not restart its work, since the 1934 Constitution itself decreed the transformation of the National Constituent Assembly into a Chamber of Deputies; and this one, in turn, began to exercise, cumulatively, the duties of the Federal Senate.  The next election of the federal parliamentarians - for the Chamber and the Senate - was scheduled for January 1935.  Therefore, only on May 3rd, 1935, the Senate resumed its regular legislature.
New institutional rupture occurred on November 10th, 1937, this time being more serious, including the suppression of the National Congress until September 1946, when the Senate restart its activities.
Following pressure from society towards the ending of the Estado Novo, the return to democracy began with Constitutional Law Nr. 9, dated February 28th, 1945, which provided for the scheduling of elections.
After pressure from society towards the end of the Estado Novo, the resumption of democracy began with Constitutional Law Nr. 9, dated February 28th, 1945, which provided for the marking of elections.  In May of that year, the Electoral Code was decreed, with the anticipation of elections, in December 1945, for the Presidency of the Republic and for the National Parliament. On October 29th of that same year, Getúlio Vargas was deposed by the Army's High Command, being replaced by the then President of the Federal Supreme Court, José Linhares, until he delivered the post to the new president elected, President Eurico Gaspar Dutra, in January of 1946.
The 1946 Constitution effectively brought back bicameralism
and the independence of the branches of the government, so the Senate would return to play its full role in the Federation.
In the 1960s, the Senate once again stood out in the institutional crisis
created by the resignation of President Janio Quadros: on August 25th, 1961, the president of the Congress, Senator Auro de Moura Andrade, officialized the inauguration of Vice President João Goulart at a sitting of the National Congress on September 7th of the same year.
The inauguration of Joao Goulart as President of the Republic has had valuable consequences for the expansion of the prerogatives of the Legislative. Until then, the vice president of the Republic held the position of president of the National Congress. From 1961 onwards, this function began to be exercised by the president of the Senate. The first senator to experience these circunstances was Auro de Moura Andrade, in 1961.  However, a new institutional break, the coup of 1964, hit the Parliament heavily. Institutional acts were edited, political rights were suspended and mandates were annulled, as that of the senator by Goiás, Juscelino Kubitschek. In October 1965, Institutional Act Nr. 2 established two-party system in Brazil, with the National Renewal Alliance (Arena) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). On the 20th of that month, General Castelo Branco determined a "recess" in the National Congress, and the next day, the Armed Forces troops occupied the building of the National Congress. Institutional Act Nr. 4 allowed the National Congress to meet extraordinarily in order to approve the new Constitution of 1967, amended in 1969.
With all the limitations to political life, to elections and to the strengthening of representation, in 1974 the Federal Senate returned to play a fundamental role for the future redemocratization of the country: 16 senators were elected by the MDB and 6 by the Arena, meaning the first great defeat of the dictatorship, strengthening the opposition in the military regime. In 1977, for the third time, the National Congress was temporarily shut down by the then President Ernesto Geisel, a fact that occurred despite the opposing efforts of Senate President Petrônio Portela. The motivation alleged by General Geisel was that of a presumed affront, because the National Congress rejected the text of the reform on the Judiciary.  Despite so many obstacles to the perfect functioning of the Legislative, several important laws for society were passed in Congress,
even before redemocratization. In 1977, the divorce was instituted in Brazil, by law authored by Senator Nelson Carneiro. In 1979, the Amnesty Law allowed the return of the exiles to the country, being the first law of transition to the democratic government. Also in 1979, the bipartisanship imposed by the military regime came to an end and new party organizations emerge.
During this period, the clamor of society for a return to democracy gained a greater dimension. Demonstrations for the return of the rule of law culminated in the campaign "Direct Elections Now". However, despite the requst of the population, the proposed amendment to the Constitution was rejected in 1984 by the Plenary of the National Congress.
The following year, in 1985, Senator Tancredo Neves was elected by the electoral college, with Senator Jose Sarney as his deputy.
Thus, the Senate has played a crucial role in the history of
redemocratization of national policy.

With the advent of the Republic, the legislative activity became more intense, with the Senate assuming a leading role that led, for example, to the approval of the Brazilian Civil Code. In the beginning of the Republic, notably, the Senators Rui Barbosa, Campos Sales, Prudente de Morais, Pinheiro Machado and Epitácio Pessoa stood out.A significant setback for the Federal Senate occurred due to the Revolution of 1930, when the movement led by Getúlio Vargas brought an institutional rupture by dissolving the National Congress, on November 11th, 1930.  The 1934 Constitution restored the Legislative Branch, comprised of Chamber of Deputies and Federal Senate; and at the same time decreed that the next election of the President of the Republic would be indirect. On July 17th, 1934, Getúlio Vargas was elected. Even with the restoration of the National Congress, comprised of two legislative houses, the Federal Senate did not restart its work, since the 1934 Constitution itself decreed the transformation of the National Constituent Assembly into a Chamber of Deputies; and this one, in turn, began to exercise, cumulatively, the duties of the Federal Senate.  The next election of the federal parliamentarians - for the Chamber and the Senate - was scheduled for January 1935.  Therefore, only on May 3rd, 1935, the Senate resumed its regular legislature. New institutional rupture occurred on November 10th, 1937, this time being more serious, including the suppression of the National Congress until September 1946, when the Senate restart its activities. Following pressure from society towards the ending of the Estado Novo, the return to democracy began with Constitutional Law Nr. 9, dated February 28th, 1945, which provided for the scheduling of elections.After pressure from society towards the end of the Estado Novo, the resumption of democracy began with Constitutional Law Nr. 9, dated February 28th, 1945, which provided for the marking of elections.  In May of that year, the Electoral Code was decreed, with the anticipation of elections, in December 1945, for the Presidency of the Republic and for the National Parliament. On October 29th of that same year, Getúlio Vargas was deposed by the Army's High Command, being replaced by the then President of the Federal Supreme Court, José Linhares, until he delivered the post to the new president elected, President Eurico Gaspar Dutra, in January of 1946.The 1946 Constitution effectively brought back bicameralismand the independence of the branches of the government, so the Senate would return to play its full role in the Federation.In the 1960s, the Senate once again stood out in the institutional crisiscreated by the resignation of President Janio Quadros: on August 25th, 1961, the president of the Congress, Senator Auro de Moura Andrade, officialized the inauguration of Vice President João Goulart at a sitting of the National Congress on September 7th of the same year.The inauguration of Joao Goulart as President of the Republic has had valuable consequences for the expansion of the prerogatives of the Legislative. Until then, the vice president of the Republic held the position of president of the National Congress. From 1961 onwards, this function began to be exercised by the president of the Senate. The first senator to experience these circunstances was Auro de Moura Andrade, in 1961.  However, a new institutional break, the coup of 1964, hit the Parliament heavily. Institutional acts were edited, political rights were suspended and mandates were annulled, as that of the senator by Goiás, Juscelino Kubitschek. In October 1965, Institutional Act Nr. 2 established two-party system in Brazil, with the National Renewal Alliance (Arena) and the Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). On the 20th of that month, General Castelo Branco determined a "recess" in the National Congress, and the next day, the Armed Forces troops occupied the building of the National Congress. Institutional Act Nr. 4 allowed the National Congress to meet extraordinarily in order to approve the new Constitution of 1967, amended in 1969.With all the limitations to political life, to elections and to the strengthening of representation, in 1974 the Federal Senate returned to play a fundamental role for the future redemocratization of the country: 16 senators were elected by the MDB and 6 by the Arena, meaning the first great defeat of the dictatorship, strengthening the opposition in the military regime. In 1977, for the third time, the National Congress was temporarily shut down by the then President Ernesto Geisel, a fact that occurred despite the opposing efforts of Senate President Petrônio Portela. The motivation alleged by General Geisel was that of a presumed affront, because the National Congress rejected the text of the reform on the Judiciary.  Despite so many obstacles to the perfect functioning of the Legislative, several important laws for society were passed in Congress,even before redemocratization. In 1977, the divorce was instituted in Brazil, by law authored by Senator Nelson Carneiro. In 1979, the Amnesty Law allowed the return of the exiles to the country, being the first law of transition to the democratic government. Also in 1979, the bipartisanship imposed by the military regime came to an end and new party organizations emerge.During this period, the clamor of society for a return to democracy gained a greater dimension. Demonstrations for the return of the rule of law culminated in the campaign "Direct Elections Now". However, despite the requst of the population, the proposed amendment to the Constitution was rejected in 1984 by the Plenary of the National Congress.The following year, in 1985, Senator Tancredo Neves was elected by the electoral college, with Senator Jose Sarney as his deputy.Thus, the Senate has played a crucial role in the history ofredemocratization of national policy.